Course Number: 737
The Basic Hydraulics textbook opens with a thorough description of hydraulic principles. Subsequent lessons then describe the various components that make up a complete system, beginning with hydraulic fluid and progressing through the various mechanical components. The textbook describes a wide variety of hydraulic cylinders and motors. This textbook is a prerequisite for the 738 textbook, Hydraulic Troubleshooting.
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Recommended Contact Hours – 15
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Principles of Hydraulics
Topics: Force, weight, mass, pressure, work, power, and energy; Incompressibility; Nondiffusion; Hydrostatic pressure; Pascal's Law; Fluid power transmission; Bernoulli's principle
- Explain the difference between absolute and gauge pressure.
- Demonstrate how power is calculated.
- Explain Pascal's Law.
- Describe the difference between laminar and turbulent flow.
- Name the main components of a hydraulic system.
Chapter 2: Hydraulic Fluids
Topics: Viscosity; Pour point; Fluid selection; Chemical properties; System contamination; Dissolved air; Foaming; Corrosion and rusting
- List the most important properties of hydraulic fluids.
- Explain how viscosity is measured.
- Explain the meaning of the viscosity index.
- Describe the effect of fluid temperature on viscosity.
- Name the causes of corrosion and fluid oxidation.
- Identify various types of hydraulic fluids.
Chapter 3: Strainers and Filters
Topics: Contaminant removal; Strainer performance; Types of strainers; Fibrous and nonfibrous filter media; Magnetic media; Installation
- Name contaminants found in hydraulic systems.
- Explain the difference between a strainer and a filter, and describe the main function of each.
- Describe the two basic types of filter/strainer media.
- Draw graphic symbols for strainers and filters.
Chapter 4: Reservoirs and Accumulators
Topics: Reservoir, air separation requirements; Baffles; Reservoir cooling methods and accessories; Accumulators; Schematic symbols
- Explain the functions of fluid reservoirs.
- Explain the purpose of reservoir baffles.
- Describe various methods of counteracting high operating temperatures.
- Identify important accessories used with reservoirs.
- Demonstrate pressure ratio calculation for a differential-piston accumulator.
Chapter 5: Hydraulic Pumps
Topics: Pump varieties, functions, and selection; Gear, screw, cycloidal, vane, axial-piston, and radial-piston pumps
- Name the main classification of hydraulic pumps.
- List factors affecting pump selection and pump performance.
- Define volumetric efficiency and overall efficiency.
- Identify the most common types of positive-displacement pumps, and describe their operation.
Chapter 6: Piping, Tubing, and Fittings
Topics: Fluid flow and velocity; Hydraulic pressure; Pressure loss; Steel pipe and fittings; Tubing and tube bending; Hoses; Hose fittings and couplings
- Discuss the chief considerations in hydraulic line selection.
- Demonstrate how flow velocity and pressure loss are calculated.
- Explain pipe size schedules.
- Describe various types of fittings used in hydraulic systems.
- Explain the reason for using steel pipe.
- List the main advantages of tubing.
Chapter 7: Directional Control Valves
Topics: Valve classification; Automatic, two-way, check, pilot-operated, and spool valves; Hydraulic motors; NO, NC, holding valves; Symbols; Flow ratings
- Explain the classification of directional control valves.
- Describe how manually operated valves work.
- Explain the difference between direct-acting and pilot-operated valves.
- Describe the operation of a check valve, a spool valve, a three-way valve, a four-way valve, and a rotary valve.
- Explain the difference between normally closed and normally open valves.
Chapter 8: Pressure-Control Valves
Topics: Poppet, spool, sequence, counterbalance, holding, unloading, and pressure-reducing valves; Shock suppressors; Flow-control valves
- Explain the functions of a pressure-control valve, a pressure-relief valve, and a pressure-reducing valve.
- Describe the operation of a spool valve, a poppet valve, and a sequence valve.
- Explain the purpose of holding valves, unloading valves, and counterbalance valves.
- Name the operations performed by flow-control valves.
- Describe how pressure compensation and temperature compensation work.
Chapter 9: Hydraulic Cylinders
Topics: Double-, single-acting cylinders; Two-piston cylinders; Positional cylinders; Cylinder construction; Rings, seals, and packing; Cylinder mounting and selection; Flow capacity; Cushioning
- Describe the purpose of a hydraulic cylinder, and explain how a double-acting cylinder works.
- Explain the difference between "pull-type" and "push-type" single-acting cylinders.
- Describe the construction of a hydraulic cylinder.
- Explain the various methods of mounting cylinders.
- Demonstrate how to calculate the flow capacity of a hydraulic cylinder.
Chapter 10: Hydraulic Motors
Topics: Performance specifications; Starting, running, and stalling torque; Volumetric efficiency; Hydraulic motor construction; Gear, vane, and piston motors
- Explain the classification of hydraulic motors.
- Demonstrate how the torque of a hydraulic motor is calculated.
- Calculate the horsepower output of a hydraulic motor.
- Discuss cost factors and other considerations affecting motor selection.
- Describe the construction of a hydraulic motor.
- Explain the operating principles of a gear motor, a vane motor, and a piston motor.
Add Chapters to Your Custom Book
- Chapter 1: Principles of Hydraulics
- Chapter 2: Hydraulic Fluids
- Chapter 3: Strainers and Filters
- Chapter 4: Reservoirs and Accumulators
- Chapter 5: Hydraulic Pumps
- Chapter 6: Piping, Tubing, and Fittings
- Chapter 7: Directional Control Valves
- Chapter 8: Pressure-Control Valves
- Chapter 9: Hydraulic Cylinders
- Chapter 10: Hydraulic Motors
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