Mechanical Systems > Basic Hydraulics

Basic Hydraulics

Course Number: 737

The Basic Hydraulics textbook opens with a thorough description of hydraulic principles. Subsequent lessons then describe the various components that make up a complete system, beginning with hydraulic fluid and progressing through the various mechanical components. The textbook describes a wide variety of hydraulic cylinders and motors. This textbook is a prerequisite for the 738 textbook, Hydraulic Troubleshooting.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Principles of Hydraulics

Topics: Force, weight, mass, pressure, work, power, and energy; Incompressibility; Nondiffusion; Hydrostatic pressure; Pascal's Law; Fluid power transmission; Bernoulli's principle

Learning Objectives:

  • Explain the difference between absolute and gauge pressure.
  • Demonstrate how power is calculated.
  • Explain Pascal's Law.
  • Describe the difference between laminar and turbulent flow.
  • Name the main components of a hydraulic system.

Chapter 2: Hydraulic Fluids

Topics: Viscosity; Pour point; Fluid selection; Chemical properties; System contamination; Dissolved air; Foaming; Corrosion and rusting

Learning Objectives:

  • List the most important properties of hydraulic fluids.
  • Explain how viscosity is measured.
  • Explain the meaning of the viscosity index.
  • Describe the effect of fluid temperature on viscosity.
  • Name the causes of corrosion and fluid oxidation.
  • Identify various types of hydraulic fluids.

Chapter 3: Strainers and Filters

Topics: Contaminant removal; Strainer performance; Types of strainers; Fibrous and nonfibrous filter media; Magnetic media; Installation

Learning Objectives:

  • Name contaminants found in hydraulic systems.
  • Explain the difference between a strainer and a filter, and describe the main function of each.
  • Describe the two basic types of filter/strainer media.
  • Draw graphic symbols for strainers and filters.

Chapter 4: Reservoirs and Accumulators

Topics: Reservoir, air separation requirements; Baffles; Reservoir cooling methods and accessories; Accumulators; Schematic symbols

Learning Objectives:

  • Explain the functions of fluid reservoirs.
  • Explain the purpose of reservoir baffles.
  • Describe various methods of counteracting high operating temperatures.
  • Identify important accessories used with reservoirs.
  • Demonstrate pressure ratio calculation for a differential-piston accumulator.

Chapter 5: Hydraulic Pumps

Topics: Pump varieties, functions, and selection; Gear, screw, cycloidal, vane, axial-piston, and radial-piston pumps

Learning Objectives:

  • Name the main classification of hydraulic pumps.
  • List factors affecting pump selection and pump performance.
  • Define volumetric efficiency and overall efficiency.
  • Identify the most common types of positive-displacement pumps, and describe their operation.

Chapter 6: Piping, Tubing, and Fittings

Topics: Fluid flow and velocity; Hydraulic pressure; Pressure loss; Steel pipe and fittings; Tubing and tube bending; Hoses; Hose fittings and couplings

Learning Objectives:

  • Discuss the chief considerations in hydraulic line selection.
  • Demonstrate how flow velocity and pressure loss are calculated.
  • Explain pipe size schedules.
  • Describe various types of fittings used in hydraulic systems.
  • Explain the reason for using steel pipe.
  • List the main advantages of tubing.

Chapter 7: Directional Control Valves

Topics: Valve classification; Automatic, two-way, check, pilot-operated, and spool valves; Hydraulic motors; NO, NC, holding valves; Symbols; Flow ratings

Learning Objectives:

  • Explain the classification of directional control valves.
  • Describe how manually operated valves work.
  • Explain the difference between direct-acting and pilot-operated valves.
  • Describe the operation of a check valve, a spool valve, a three-way valve, a four-way valve, and a rotary valve.
  • Explain the difference between normally closed and normally open valves.

Chapter 8: Pressure-Control Valves

Topics: Poppet, spool, sequence, counterbalance, holding, unloading, and pressure-reducing valves; Shock suppressors; Flow-control valves

Learning Objectives:

  • Explain the functions of a pressure-control valve, a pressure-relief valve, and a pressure-reducing valve.
  • Describe the operation of a spool valve, a poppet valve, and a sequence valve.
  • Explain the purpose of holding valves, unloading valves, and counterbalance valves.
  • Name the operations performed by flow-control valves.
  • Describe how pressure compensation and temperature compensation work.

Chapter 9: Hydraulic Cylinders

Topics: Double-, single-acting cylinders; Two-piston cylinders; Positional cylinders; Cylinder construction; Rings, seals, and packing; Cylinder mounting and selection; Flow capacity; Cushioning

Learning Objectives:

  • Describe the purpose of a hydraulic cylinder, and explain how a double-acting cylinder works.
  • Explain the difference between "pull-type" and "push-type" single-acting cylinders.
  • Describe the construction of a hydraulic cylinder.
  • Explain the various methods of mounting cylinders.
  • Demonstrate how to calculate the flow capacity of a hydraulic cylinder.

Chapter 10: Hydraulic Motors

Topics: Performance specifications; Starting, running, and stalling torque; Volumetric efficiency; Hydraulic motor construction; Gear, vane, and piston motors

Learning Objectives:

  • Explain the classification of hydraulic motors.
  • Demonstrate how the torque of a hydraulic motor is calculated.
  • Calculate the horsepower output of a hydraulic motor.
  • Discuss cost factors and other considerations affecting motor selection.
  • Describe the construction of a hydraulic motor.
  • Explain the operating principles of a gear motor, a vane motor, and a piston motor.

Add Chapters to Your Custom Book

Select Chapter(s):

  •    Chapter 1: Principles of Hydraulics
  •    Chapter 2: Hydraulic Fluids
  •    Chapter 3: Strainers and Filters
  •    Chapter 4: Reservoirs and Accumulators
  •    Chapter 5: Hydraulic Pumps
  •    Chapter 6: Piping, Tubing, and Fittings
  •    Chapter 7: Directional Control Valves
  •    Chapter 8: Pressure-Control Valves
  •    Chapter 9: Hydraulic Cylinders
  •    Chapter 10: Hydraulic Motors

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