# Industrial Electricity Vol 1

**Course Number: 8173**

The two volumes of this textbook can be used independently or in conjunction with each other. They orient students to not only the principles of electricity and single-phase and three-phase motors but also on maintaining and troubleshooting controls and motors. The Industrial Electricity Vol. 1 textbook includes an overview of the principles of electricity and circuit analysis, and the installation and maintenance of single-phase motors.

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**Recommended Contact Hours – 23**

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## Table of Contents

### Chapter 1: Current Resistance and Voltage

**Topics: ** Electric current, resistance, and potential difference; Ohm's Law; Resistance and voltage drop; Electrical measurement

**Learning Objectives: **

- State the characteristics of an electrical conductor and an electrical insulator.
- State the definition of electric current.
- Explain the relationship of potential difference to the flow of electric current.
- State the definition of Ohm's Law.
- Identify the purpose and parts of an ammeter.

### Chapter 2: Electrical Components

**Topics: ** Resistors; Color code and power rating; Capacitors; Connecting capacitors; Induction; Inductors; Solenoids and relays

**Learning Objectives: **

- Identify symbols for resistors, capacitors, and relays in an electric circuit diagram.
- Explain the operating principles of resistors, capacitors, and inductors.
- State the meaning of each band in the resistor color-code system.
- List the factors to consider when choosing a resistor.
- Explain how to connect capacitors in parallel and in series.

### Chapter 3: Conductors

**Topics: ** Sizes and classifications; Insulation; Protecting conductors; Flexible conduit; Conduit fill; Splicing conductors

**Learning Objectives: **

- Explain the difference between a conductor and an insulator.
- Identify a bare conductor, a covered conductor, an insulated conductor, a stranded conductor, a cable, and a cord.
- State the definitions of insulation resistance and dielectric strength.
- Select the best tapes for insulating splices, restoring the outer protecting covering on a splice, and connecting motor leads.
- Explain how to make a pigtail splice and a fixture splice.
- State the purposes of cable protection.

### Chapter 4: AC Electricity

**Topics: ** Advantages of AC; Generating alternating current; Resistance, inductance, capacitance, current, and power in AC circuits

**Learning Objectives: **

- Explain the importance of the transformer in ac electricity.
- Explain what a complete cycle of ac consists of and how it is produced.
- State the definition of ac inductance.
- List the ways inductive reactance differs from resistance.
- Explain the difference between the terms in-phase and out-of-phase in an ac circuit.

### Chapter 5: Series-Parallel Circuits

**Topics: ** DC motors and generators; Voltage dividers; Lighting circuits; Three- and four-way switch circuits

**Learning Objectives: **

- State the definition of a series-parallel circuit.
- Identify series, parallel, and series-parallel circuits.
- Explain how to calculate resistances in a series-parallel circuit.
- Demonstrate how to trace and simplify a circuit.

### Chapter 6: Principles of AC Circuits

**Topics: ** AC and DC electricity; AC waveform; Peak-to-peak, average, effective values; Energy storage; Faraday's Law; Basic circuit concepts

**Learning Objectives: **

- State of definition of a waveform.
- Demonstrate how to calculate the frequency of an alternator's output.
- Explain how to calculate an effective value.
- Name the kinds of values that must be used when applying the dc rules and laws to ac circuits.

### Chapter 7: Mathematics in AC Circuits

**Topics: ** Potential difference; Angles and degrees; Vectors applied to AC circuits; Graphic and math solutions; Calculating instantaneous values

**Learning Objectives: **

- Describe a triangle.
- State the definition of a vector.
- Identify the vector representing resistance in a vector diagram.
- Demonstrate how to calculate the total impedance in an ac circuit.

### Chapter 8: Inductance and Inductive Reactance

**Topics: ** Factors affecting inductance; CEMF; Inductive reactance and time delay; Phase angles; Impedance; Mutual induction; Inductors

**Learning Objectives: **

- Name the property of a coil that makes it resist changes in current.
- List the factors that determine inductance in a coil.
- State the definition of counter electromotive force.
- Demonstrate how to convert a frequency in Hz to a frequency in radians per second.

### Chapter 9: Capacitance and Capacitive Reactance

**Topics: ** How a capacitor works; Factors controlling capacitance; Kinds of capacitors; Time constants; Capacitive reactance; Phase angle

**Learning Objectives: **

- Name the parts of a capacitor.
- List the factors that affect the amount of charge stored in a capacitor at a given potential difference.
- Demonstrate how to install a multisection electrolytic capacitor.
- State the definition of capacitive reactance.

### Chapter 10: Impedance

**Topics: ** Impedance in series circuits; Phase angles; Resonance in series circuits; Impedance in parallel circuits

**Learning Objectives: **

- State the definition of impedance.
- Explain how to calculate the impedance in a series ac circuit.
- Demonstrate how to find the value of a phase angle for a circuit.
- Explain how to calculate the impedance in a parallel circuit.

### Chapter 11: Principles of Single-Phase Motors

**Topics: ** Motor parts; NEMA motor standards and enclosures; Nameplate data; Induction motors; Stator, rotor field; Split-phase starting; Synchronous speed; Starting switches

**Learning Objectives: **

- List the parts of a rotor.
- List the data given on a typical motor nameplate.
- Explain how an induction motor works.
- Demonstrate how to calculate the number of electrical degrees in one complete rotation of a motor.
- Explain how a centrifugal switch works.

### Chapter 12: Split-Phase Motors

**Topics: ** Motor connections; Skein and consequent-pole windings; Two-speed, three-, four-winding, and dual-voltage motors; Troubleshooting

**Learning Objectives: **

- State the reason why a second stator winding is important in the single-phase induction motor.
- Explain how to identify motor leads when there are no tags or colors to identify them.
- Describe a skein winding.
- List the ways to change the speed of a motor by changing the number of poles.
- Discuss some common motor problems.

### Chapter 13: Capacitor Motors

**Topics: ** Kinds and operation; Rotating magnetic fields; Single-voltage, dual-voltage, reversible, capacitor-start, and capacitor-run motors

**Learning Objectives: **

- State the definition of a capacitor.
- Explain how to make a split-phase motor operate as a capacitor-start motor.
- Explain how the running windings are connected to make a dual-voltage motor run on either 120 or 240 volts.
- Select the best capacitor to use as a substitute for a defective capacitor when an identical unit is not available.
- List problems that cause the circuit breaker to trip when you turn on a capacitor motor.

### Chapter 14: Motor Installation

**Topics: ** Conductor size; Preventing shorts and grounds; Controllers; Overcurrent protection; Guards; Grounding; Fuses; Starters; Service factor

**Learning Objectives: **

- Explain how to determine conductor size for motors.
- State the definition of a controller.
- List the conditions under which the frames of stationary motors must be grounded.
- Demonstrate how to determine the size of a dual-element when two or more motors are connected to one feeder.
- List the electrical and mechanical factors to consider in selecting a motor for a specific application.

### Chapter 15: Motor Maintenance

**Topics: ** Procedures; Testing capacitors and stator windings; Armature defects; Noisy operation; Bearing problems; High temperatures; Incorrect speed

**Learning Objectives: **

- Demonstrate how to test bearings for wear.
- Explain how to test capacitors.
- State the reason why proper belt tension in important.
- List the common causes of excessive brush sparking.

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