Instrumentation and Process Control > Introduction to Process Measurement and Control

Introduction to Process Measurement and Control

Course Number: 771

The Introduction to Process Measurement and Control textbook explains the function of basic devices for measuring and controlling different kinds of variables in process control. It introduces closed-loop control, PID functions, analog and digital devices, and programmable logic controllers (PLCs). It also covers ISA and SAMA instrumentation symbols and the interpretation and use of process diagrams.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: The Nature of Process Control

Topics: Process variables; On-off control; Measuring data; Controlling variables, Error and feedback; Open- and closed-loop control

Learning Objectives:

  • Define setpoint and error.
  • Explain how measurement and control are related in industrial processes.
  • Describe the four essential functions of an automatic control system.
  • Discuss the functions of the CRT and PLC in control systems.
  • Identify variables in industrial processes.
  • Explain the importance of feedback in a closed-loop control system.

Chapter 2: Elements of Process Control

Topics: Analog and digital control signals; ASCII; Measuring pressure, level, and flow rate; Digital pulse control; System terminology; Controller action

Learning Objectives:

  • Discuss the differences between modern automatic control systems and older ones.
  • Identify the standard signals used in process control.
  • Define the terms commonly used in control terminology.
  • Explain the differences between open-loop control and closed-loop control.
  • Describe on-off, proportional, integral, derivative, and PID controller action.

Chapter 3: Process Control Signals

Topics: Linear and nonlinear transducers; Signal operating values; Error; Controller output; Pneumatic and electrical signal transmission; Control loops

Learning Objectives:

  • Discuss standard signals and linearity and explain how to calculate the value of a variable from an instrument's span and range.
  • Describe five common sources of error in signal measurement.
  • Discuss the basic principles governing pneumatic signal transmission and explain how a flapper-nozzle device works.
  • Describe the function of the controller in a control loop.
  • Discuss the basic principles governing electrical signal transmission, including Ohm's law, and list standard current and voltage signals.
  • Explain the function of I/P devices in a typical control system and discuss the use of digital signals and optical signals.

Chapter 4: Process Measurement Fundamentals

Topics: Measurement and display requirements; Remote and local display; Calibration; Noise; Response time; Measurement system and observation error

Learning Objectives:

  • Explain why measurement is necessary and discuss conditions that affect the degree of accuracy required.
  • Compare the advantages of linear and nonlinear displays.
  • Compare analog and digital devices and explain how each is applied to measurement.
  • Name five sources of measurement error.

Chapter 5: Principles of Transducer Operation

Topics: Outputs; Mechanical, electrical, and pneumatic elements and response; Resistance, voltage, and frequency devices; Combining elements

Learning Objectives:

  • Discuss the need for linearity in a process.
  • List examples of mechanical and electrical transducer elements.
  • Compare pneumatic response and electrical/electronic response in transducers.
  • Describe the operation of the bourdon tube, bellows, and diaphragm.
  • Name examples of resistance, voltage response, frequency response, and electromechanical devices and explain how they work.

Chapter 6: Basic Process Measurement Systems

Topics: Interaction of system elements; Transmitters; Electrical vs. pneumatic output; Converters; Signal conditioning; Indicators and recorders

Learning Objectives:

  • Discuss the basic elements of measuring systems and explain how they interact.
  • Describe how a physical quantity is translated into another quantity.
  • Discuss the use of transmitters to relay information from one location to another and explain the transfer function.
  • Describe the operation of at least five kinds of converters.

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  •    Chapter 1: The Nature of Process Control
  •    Chapter 2: Elements of Process Control
  •    Chapter 3: Process Control Signals
  •    Chapter 4: Process Measurement Fundamentals
  •    Chapter 5: Principles of Transducer Operation
  •    Chapter 6: Basic Process Measurement Systems

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