Introduction to Instrumentation
Course Number: 8118
The Introduction to Instrumentation textbook provides a thorough overview of instrumentation, and is suitable for students going on to careers in food processing and related industries. It is also suitable as a general introduction or first course in instrumentation—covers process control and signals, the foundations of measurement instrumentation, and temperature and pressure measurement.
Recommended Contact Hours – 18
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1: The Nature of Process Control
Topics: Process variables; On-off control; Measuring data; Controlling variables, Error and feedback; Open- and closed-loop control
- Define setpoint and error.
- Explain how measurement and control are related in industrial processes.
- Describe the four essential functions of an automatic control system.
- Discuss the functions of the CRT and PLC in control systems.
- Identify variables in industrial processes.
- Explain the importance of feedback in a closed-loop control system.
Chapter 2: Elements of Process Control
Topics: Analog and digital control signals; ASCII; Measuring pressure, level, and flow rate; Digital pulse control; System terminology; Controller action
- Discuss the differences between modern automatic control systems and older ones.
- Identify the standard signals used in process control.
- Define the terms commonly used in control terminology.
- Explain the differences between open-loop control and closed-loop control.
- Describe on-off, proportional, integral, derivative, and PID controller action.
Chapter 3: Process Control Signals
Topics: Linear and nonlinear transducers; Signal operating values; Error; Controller output; Pneumatic and electrical signal transmission; Control loops
- Discuss standard signals and linearity and explain how to calculate the value of a variable from an instrument's span and range.
- Describe five common sources of error in signal measurement.
- Discuss the basic principles governing pneumatic signal transmission and explain how a flapper-nozzle device works.
- Describe the function of the controller in a control loop.
- Discuss the basic principles governing electrical signal transmission, including Ohm's law, and list standard current and voltage signals.
- Explain the function of I/P devices in a typical control system and discuss the use of digital signals and optical signals.
Chapter 4: Principles of Pressure in Liquids and Gases
Topics: Properties of matter; Units of pressure; Density; Specific gravity, Gauge, absolute, and atmospheric pressure; Pressure and flow
- Compare the three forms of matter.
- Define pressure and explain the difference between gauge pressure and absolute pressure.
- Discuss the conditions that affect the pressure of a liquid.
- Describe how changes in volume affect the pressure of a gas at a constant temperature.
- Describe how changes in temperature affect the volume of a gas at constant pressure, and the pressure of a gas with a constant volume.
- Discuss the two causes of pressure drop in a pipe carrying liquid from a tank.
Chapter 5: Pressure Sensors
Topics: Manometers; Bourdon tubes; Diaphragm sensor construction and capsule elements; Bellows sensors; Maintaining accuracy; Calibration
- Explain how a manometer works.
- Describe four kinds of bourdon-tube sensors.
- Discuss construction details of bourdon tubes, diaphragms, and bellows.
- Explain how bellows pressure sensors work.
- Describe how calibration may be accomplished and list the steps in calibrating a pressure gauge.
- Explain how normally open and normally closed pressure switches work.
Chapter 6: Properties of Fluid Flow
Topics: Fluids in motion; Establishing a pressure difference; Indicating flow; Factors affecting flow rate; Reynolds number
- Explain the difference between density and relative density (specific gravity).
- Define fluid velocity, viscosity, and volume flow rate.
- Describe laminar flow and turbulent flow.
- Explain how static head, friction head, and velocity head differ from each other.
- Explain how pipe size, pipe friction, and fluid viscosity affect the measurement of fluid flow.
Chapter 7: Primary Measuring Devices
Topics: Flow measurement in filled pipes; Restricting flow; Pressure drop; Orifice plates; Flow nozzles; Turndown and rangeability; Pipe taps
- Describe direct and indirect flow measurement methods.
- Describe how a primary device creates a differential pressure.
- Give at least three examples of common primary devices and explain how each works.
- Describe the significant features of orifice plates and explain their functions.
- Discuss the conditions that determine the length of straight pipe required for each kind of primary flowmeter.
Chapter 8: Principles of Level Measurement
Topics: Surface-sensing and storage tank gauges; Sight glasses; Magnetic and displacer gauges; Buoyancy; Level, mercury, and magnetic reed switches; Switches with multiple displacers
- Define datum point, and contrast direct and indirect level measurement.
- Describe the main kinds of surface-sensing gauges.
- Define buoyant force and explain how it is used in displacer gauges to measure liquid level.
- Describe maintenance procedures for float devices, displacer gauges, and sight glasses.
- Compare the use of sight glasses, mercury level switches, and magnetic reed switches.
Chapter 9: Electrical Instruments
Topics: Conductivity and liquid level; Capacitance probes; Zero and span adjustments; Ultrasonic, resistance, and photoelectric level detectors
- Differentiate between continuous and point level measurements, and between direct and indirect level measurement.
- Describe the operation of a conductance probe in a conducting liquid.
- Describe the operation of a capacitance probe in a dielectric liquid.
- Explain the operation of ultrasonic, resistance, and photoelectric level sensors.
- Describe conductance point level probes, capacitance point level probes, and ultrasonic point level detectors.
Chapter 10: Temperature Measurement Principles and Indicators
Topics: Temperature and temperature scales; Heat; Change of state; Measuring instruments; Color change and melting point indicators
- Define thermal energy and explain the relationships among thermal energy, heat, and temperature in a substance.
- Correlate changes in temperature with changes in a substance's physical state.
- Compare four temperature scales, and convert temperature readings from one scale to another.
- Explain how primary and secondary temperature calibration standards are used.
- Describe various temperature-measuring devices and contrast thermometers and pyrometers.
Chapter 11: Bimetallic and Fluid-Filled Temperature Instruments
Topics: Bimetallic, liquid-in-glass, and filled-system thermometers; Liquid- and gas-filled systems; Vapor-pressure systems; Capillary and bourdon tubes; Temperature transmitters
- Discuss the physical characteristics and operation of bimetallic thermometers.
- Describe how liquid-in-glass thermometers are constructed and how they operate.
- Compare liquid-, gas-, and vapor-filled systems and discuss their advantages and disadvantages.
- Explain how a mercury thermometer operates.
Chapter 12: Fundamentals of Control Loops
Topics: Definitions; Process sensors; Sensor characteristics; Controllers; Recorders; Signal conditioners; Final control elements
- Explain the difference between an open loop and a closed loop.
- Define error, feedback, disturbance, and feedforward control.
- List several kinds of process sensors and describe the operation of each.
- Explain how accuracy, resolution, sensitivity, linearity, and step response affect sensor operation.
- Describe the functions of process controllers, recorders, signal conditioners, and final control elements.
- Explain the basic operation of a typical control loop.
Add Chapters to Your Custom Book
- Chapter 1: The Nature of Process Control
- Chapter 2: Elements of Process Control
- Chapter 3: Process Control Signals
- Chapter 4: Principles of Pressure in Liquids and Gases
- Chapter 5: Pressure Sensors
- Chapter 6: Properties of Fluid Flow
- Chapter 7: Primary Measuring Devices
- Chapter 8: Principles of Level Measurement
- Chapter 9: Electrical Instruments
- Chapter 10: Temperature Measurement Principles and Indicators
- Chapter 11: Bimetallic and Fluid-Filled Temperature Instruments
- Chapter 12: Fundamentals of Control Loops
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