Building and Grounds Maintenance > Constructing the Building Shell

Constructing the Building Shell

Course Number: 862

The Constructing the Building Shell textbook covers basic building techniques common to most structures, including methods of laying foundations, framing, covering walls, and roofs.

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Recommended Contact Hours – 10

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Footings, Foundations, and Forms

Topics: Laying out building lines; Levels; Batterboards; Grading; Excavating; Footings; Concrete; Foundation walls; Waterproofing concrete

Learning Objectives:

  • Demonstrate how to lay out a right angle without using instruments.
  • Explain how to set up batterboards and building lines for an excavation.
  • Tell what you can do to assure your own safety when working around an excavation.
  • Describe how to erect a form for a concrete footing.
  • Show how to mix a small batch of concrete using the "bottomless box."
  • Describe how to prevent concrete slabs from cracking.

Chapter 2: Framing the Structure

Topics: Common framing method; Mounting the sill; Floor joists; Cantilever framing; Subflooring; Framing walls; Cross bracing; Wall sheathing

Learning Objectives:

  • Demonstrates how to lay out anchor bolt holes in sills.
  • Describe the two methods of framing a cantilever.
  • Compare cross bridging and solid bridging between floor joists.
  • Explain how to construct and erect an inner stud wall.
  • Tell why carpenters prefer to use plywood for sheathing walls.

Chapter 3: Framing the Roof with a Framing Square

Topics: Roof designs; Rafter layout; Pitch and slope; Framing square; Estimating, laying out rafters; Setting frame in place; Roof trusses; sheathing

Learning Objectives:

  • Point out how the heel, plumb, and seat cuts in a rafter are different.
  • Identify the information printed on the face and back of a framing square.
  • Explain how to use a framing square to determine the line length of a rafter.
  • Describe how to lay out studs for a gable end.
  • Tell how to determine the length of hip rafters.

Chapter 4: Installing Windows and Exterior Doors

Topics: Types of windows and sashes; Glazing; Heat gain/loss; Window unit and glass installation; Door jamb construction; Hinges; Hanging a door

Learning Objectives:

  • Explain how awning-type and hopper-type casement windows differ in operation.
  • Name three or four of the common glazings and tell the advantages of each.
  • List the critical dimensions for preparing and installing window units.
  • Describe how to install a window unit.
  • Tell how to mount a fixed glass in a picture window.
  • Explain how to install mortise hinges on a door, and hang the door in the jamb.

Chapter 5: Installing Roofing and Siding

Topics: Roofing materials; Built-up roofing; Shingles; Flashing; Valleys; Capping a roof; Cornices; Wood, other-than-wood, shingled, and vertical siding

Learning Objectives:

  • Explain how a built-up roof is constructed.
  • Give some of the safety precautions to follow when working with hot tar.
  • Describe how to apply asphalt shingles to a roof.
  • Tell how to estimate the amount of roofing required for a building.
  • Tell how to estimate the amount of roofing required for a building.
  • Describe how to use a story pole in the application of wood siding to a building.
  • Explain how to install cornerboards for exterior trimming.

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