Process Instrumentation II
Course Number: 8115
A perfect complement to Process Instrumentation I, or as a stand alone, the Process Instrumentation II textbook covers symbology, control loops and related topics including a brief introduction to PLCs and continuing with its applied workplace approach there is an overview of troubleshooting as well.
Recommended Contact Hours – 32
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Process Control Symbols and Drawings
Topics: Instrument identification; Symbols used in process control; Symbol recognition; Piping and instrument drawing; Location drawing; Loop diagram; Installation drawing; Wiring diagram; Other kinds of symbols
- Recognize standard symbols used in process control diagrams.
- Describe a process control system through the use of instrument symbols.
- Recognize and use four kinds of process control diagrams.
- Analyze a process control drawing for the elements, signal flow, and process flow.
Chapter 2: Flowcharts and Electrical Diagrams
Topics: Sequence of operation; Flowchart; Switches; Relays; Motor starters; Electrical elementary diagram; Pump system schematic diagram; Programmable controller diagram; Electronic symbols
- Convert sequence-of-operation text to a flowchart.
- Read electrical and electronic control diagrams and drawings.
- Recognize symbols used on electrical and electronic diagrams, including those for PLCs and SAMA logic.
- Convert electrical diagrams to PLC diagrams.
- Discuss the role of computers in process control.
Chapter 3: Fundamentals of Control Loops
Topics: Definitions; Process sensors; Sensor characteristics; Controllers; Recorders; Signal conditioners; Final control elements
- Explain the difference between an open loop and a closed loop.
- Define error, feedback, disturbance, and feedforward control.
- List several kinds of process sensors and describe the operation of each.
- Explain how accuracy, resolution, sensitivity, linearity, and step response affect sensor operation.
- Describe the functions of process controllers, recorders, signal conditioners, and final control elements.
- Explain the basic operation of a typical control loop.
Chapter 4: Control Loop Characteristics
Topics: Two-position and floating control; Proportional, integral, derivative, and PID mode; Supervisory control; DDC; DCS
- Describe the difference between continuous and discontinuous control modes and give an example of each.
- Describe the action of the various continuous control modes.
- Define proportional band, reset time, and rate time.
- Discuss the advantages of each of the combination control modes.
- Name several advantages of digital controllers.
- Discuss the differences between supervisory control, direct digital control, and distributed control systems.
Chapter 5: Advanced Control Methods
Topics: Cascade and ratio control system; Feedforward control; Ratio control in a secondary loop; Multivariable control systems
- Describe how a cascade control system works.
- Identify the primary and secondary variables in a cascade loop.
- Compare feedforward and feedback control.
- Identify dependent and independent variables in ratio control.
- Explain the advantage of having a secondary control loop in ratio control.
- Describe how a multivariable control system works and define interaction.
Chapter 6: Loop Dynamics
Topics: Effects of process time lag; Dead time compensation; System stability; Transient response; Gain; Phase shift
- Describe two kinds of process time lags and give an example of each.
- Discuss the effects of capacitance and resistance on loop dynamics.
- State the three main objectives of a well-designed process control system.
- Describe how PI, PD, and PID controllers are adjusted to achieve optimum response.
- Discuss the effects of system gain and phase shift on system stability.
Chapter 7: Loop Protection
Topics: Explosion-proof enclosures; Intrinsically safe instrument systems; Fail-safe mechanisms; Hard and soft constraints; Alarms
- Discuss the classification of hazardous locations as identified in the NEC Handbook.
- Define volatility and flash point, and explain the purpose of a purged enclosure.
- Describe two kinds of explosion-proof enclosures.
- Discuss ways of making a system intrinsically safe.
- Describe examples of fail-safe mechanisms, and differentiate between hard and soft constraints.
- Compare latching and nonlatching alarm systems, and explain the function of annunciators.
- Discuss the purpose and operation of interlocked and sequential control.
Chapter 8: Measuring Conductivity
Topics: Ion concentration; Conductivity probes; Probe, liquid standard, and wire loop calibration; Grab samples; Stack gas analyzers; Maintenance
- Define conductivity and discuss the basic principles governing conductivity.
- Compare the operation of electrode probes and inductive probes.
- Describe two procedures for calibrating conductivity probes.
- Discuss proper installation and maintenance practices for conductivity probes.
- Discuss the operation of stack gas analyzers.
Chapter 9: Measuring pH and ORP
Topics: Temperature and pH; pH and ORP reference and measurement electrodes; Calibration; Probe installation, mounts, and maintenance
- Describe pH and ORP measurement processes.
- Describe the instruments used for the measurement of pH and ORP.
- Discuss calibration procedures for pH and ORP measurement instruments.
- Discuss general installation and maintenance procedures for pH and ORP measurement instruments.
Chapter 10: Optical Measurement
Topics: Transmission-type analyzers; Turbidimeter; Nephelometers; Refractometers; Capacity analyzers; Calibration, installation, and maintenance
- Describe the components that make up an optical analyzer.
- Discuss the basic operating procedures of silica ion and COD optical analyzers, turbidimeters and nephelometers, refractometers, and capacity analyzers.
- Compare procedures for calibrating an optical analyzer with standards, with grab samples, and electronically.
- Discuss installation considerations and basic maintenance procedures for an optical analyzer.
Chapter 11: Measuring Products of Combustion
Topics: Gas, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide sensors; Calibration; Maintenance
- Identify the main components in the combustion process.
- Describe the various kinds of instruments used for measuring the products of combustion.
- Discuss the principles of operation of instruments that measure the products of combustion.
- Describe the basic maintenance procedures for instruments that measure the products of combustion.
- Discuss the various sampling techniques for measuring the products of combustion.
Chapter 12: Chromatography
Topics: Chromatograph operation; Gas and liquid chromatography; System valves; Detectors; Chromatograms; Calibration and maintenance
- Discuss the principles of chromatograph operation.
- Describe four kinds of detectors used with chromatographs.
- Describe four kinds of liquid chromatog raphs.
- Explain how to read a chromatogram.
- Discuss chromatograph calibration techniques and identify variables that can affect chromatograph accuracy.
- Discuss chromatograph maintenance considerations.
Chapter 13: History and Overview
Topics: SCADA; Microprocessor-based instruments; Distributed control; Personal computers; PLCs; Artificial intelligence; Expert systems; Fuzzy logic; Integrated control systems
- Discuss the history of the application of computers to continuous and batch process control.
- Describe the function of an RTU in a SCADA system.
- Describe the development of distributed control systems from microprocessor-based instruments, including programmable logic controllers.
- Compare the hardware, operating systems, software, and applications of a PC with a household VCR.
- Compare the concepts of artificial intelligence, expert systems, and fuzzy and crisp logic.
Chapter 14: Small Computers in Process Control
Topics: Smart sensors, transmitters, signal conditioners, and final elements; Single and multiloop controllers; Networks; PLCs
- Describe the various kinds of small computers used in process control.
- Explain how a "smart" device differs from its conventional counterpart.
- Discuss the similarities between microprocessor-based instruments and conventional instruments and list several advantages of microprocessor-based instruments.
- Describe the roles of two kinds of PCs (programmable controllers and personal computers) in process control.
Chapter 15: DCS Architecture
Topics: Importance of distributed control systems; Distributed control system hardware; Workstations; Remote processing units; Host/guest computers; Transmission system; Distributed control system software; Distributed control system reliability; Peripherals; What is fieldbus?
- Describe the elements of a typical workstation.
- Discuss the functions of remote processing units and host/guest computers in DCSs.
- Compare star, hub, and ring network topologies and token-passing, contention, and polling protocols.
- Explain why today's DCS users must be more computer literate than previously.
- Discuss ways of calculating and ensuring DCS reliability.
- Describe the functions of six typical DCS peripherals.
- List advantages and disadvantages of all-digital process control systems, such as fieldbus.
Chapter 16: DCS Configuration and Operation
Topics: Configuring distributed control systems; Hierarchical displays; Configuring operating and auxiliary displays; Operation
- Describe the basics of a simple configuration process.
- Discuss the preparatory steps required for configuration.
- Describe a typical hierarchical display arrangement and discuss the progression of the configuration process from level to level.
- Discuss the automatic configuration of auxiliary displays.
- Discuss the DCS functions for which the operator is and is not responsible.
Chapter 17: System Integration
Topics: The scope of integration; Total business integration; Discrete processes and manufacturing systems; Flexible manufacturing; Materials control; Statistical process control; Integration of continuous and batch processes
- Discuss the development of integration in industry.
- Describe how continuous and discrete processes fit into the concept of total business integration.
- Describe the purposes of MAP and OSI.
- Discuss the functions of CAD, CADD, CAE, CAM, and cell control in discrete processes.
- Discuss the importance of FMS, MRP, JIT, and MMS in today's integrated industrial plant.
- Explain how SPC ensures quality control in open-loop processes.
- Discuss the advantages of integrating batch, continuous, and discrete processes throughout a plant.
Chapter 18: Instrument Troubleshooting
Topics: Troubleshooting requirements; Knowledge of the equipment; Using manufacturer's literature, Maintenance and repair records; Tools and test instruments; Calibration standards; Troubleshooting techniques; Gathering information; Checking the records; Returning the loop to operation; Inspecting the instrument; In-shop troubleshooting; Recording the repair
- Explain how an understanding of the process and its instrumentation reduces troubleshooting time.
- List at least four kinds of information typically included in a manufacturer's manual or instruction book.
- Describe the contents of an instrument history file and explain its usefulness in troubleshooting.
- Discuss the kinds of tools, including calibration standards, you are apt to use in troubleshooting.
- Describe the steps in a typical troubleshooting procedure and explain how to use a branching troubleshooting chart.
- Describe cascading failure.
Chapter 20: Servicing Fundamentals
Topics: Why is instrument servicing necessary?; Repair modes; Repair records; Failure mode analysis; Maintenance modes; Maintenance records; Calibration modes; Calibration records; Calibration seals; Care of tools and equipment; Shop layout and operations
- Compare methods of on-site and shop repair of malfunctioning instruments.
- Describe the differences between repairing, maintaining, and calibrating instruments.
- Describe the contents of an equipment history file and a process loop file.
- Discuss the benefits of failure mode analysis.
- Describe proper calibration procedures, including use of calibration seals, and explain what NIST-traceable means.
- Describe the typical main sections of an industrial instrument shop.
Add Chapters to Your Custom Book
- Chapter 1: Process Control Symbols and Drawings
- Chapter 2: Flowcharts and Electrical Diagrams
- Chapter 3: Fundamentals of Control Loops
- Chapter 4: Control Loop Characteristics
- Chapter 5: Advanced Control Methods
- Chapter 6: Loop Dynamics
- Chapter 7: Loop Protection
- Chapter 8: Measuring Conductivity
- Chapter 9: Measuring pH and ORP
- Chapter 10: Optical Measurement
- Chapter 11: Measuring Products of Combustion
- Chapter 12: Chromatography
- Chapter 13: History and Overview
- Chapter 14: Small Computers in Process Control
- Chapter 15: DCS Architecture
- Chapter 16: DCS Configuration and Operation
- Chapter 17: System Integration
- Chapter 18: Instrument Troubleshooting
- Chapter 20: Servicing Fundamentals
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